1901 to World War II

1901 to the Peace Treaty of 1919

The United States to 1914 – morality, sports and music, blacks, reforms, prosperity, labor unrest and new taxes

The Mexican Revolution – Zapata, Pancho Villa, U.S. invasion, the Carranza presidency

Turn of the century Imperialism, 1894 to 1908 – Boxer Rebellion, empire in Africa, France in Vietnam, Russo-Japanese War

Toward World War One, 1901-08 – tradition and change, alliances, Germany's failed diplomacy, Franz Joseph vs Serbs

Europe's Slide to War, 1911-14 – policy failures, the assassination; rush to war and finding blame

The War to December 1916 – failed offensives, stupidity, exhaustion

Rebellion in Ireland – the British overreact

The U.S. Declares War – German strategies, clamour for war, the draft and moves against dissent

Western and Italian Fronts in 1917 – new offensives by the French, British and Italians

Russian Revolution Begins – the tsar is replaced by the Duma and people's councils) appear

Power to the Soviets – the Bolsheviks take power; instabiliities to July 1918

Germany's 1918 Offensives and the Armistice delusions, negotiations, and joy in the streets

Failed Uprisings in Germany, 1918-19 – the attempted Spartacist Coup in Berlin and a Soviet regime in Munich

The Treaty of Versailles – Paris Peace Conference, 1919, and repercussions

The Middle East

Turkey and Islam, 1876-1930 – Ataturk, national independence and secularization

Palestine, Syria, Lebanon and Iraq, to 1930 – imperialism and resistance.

Empire in Egypt and the Sudan, to 1929 – British rule; the Muslim Brotherhood

Afghanistan, to the 1930s – the monarchy, assassinations and attempted modernization

Central Asia under the Russians, to 1936 – creation of Central Asian republics

Jews and Arabs in Palestine, to 1939 – Jews and Muslims in peace and conflict under British rule

Ibn Saud, the Wahhabi, and Oil, to 1945 – Ibn Saud creates and expands his kingdom, allied with the British

Elsewhere in the 1920s

Civil War, Lenin and the Rise of Stalin – 1918 to 1930

China in Revolution, to 1927 – the republic replaces Manchu rule and struggles for an identity

Japanese Politics and Society, to 1927 – labor, business, politics, Western culture, depression and repression

Britain, Ireland and India – recovery and conflict with tradition

France recovers from War – conservatives and prosperity, de Gaulle ignored and the Maginot Line

French Colonialism in Vietnam – French rule and Ho Chi Minh

Empire and Apartheid in Africa – the French, Italian, Spanish and British in Africa, and the Union of South Africa

Mussolini and Fascism in Italy – Mussolini from youth to Prime Minister

Weimar Republic and Adolf Hitler, to 1928 – the Weimar Republic, Hitler, extremism and conservatism

The US in Hawaii, the Philippines and Latin America – conservative directions

The US to the Crash of 1929 – race, repression, Harding, morality, sports, Coolidge and Hoover

Depression and War

The Great Depression, to 1935 – the US, Sweden, France, Italy and Britain

Hitler and Germany, 1928-35 – Hitler becomes chancellor, reforms Germany's economy and rearms

Austria, Left and Right, to 1934 – Social Democrats are crushed by Rightists

Passivity and Aggression in Europe to 1936 – voices for peace, including Hitler's, and fear of the left in France

Depression and Politics in Latin America – South America, Central America, Cuba, Mexico

Spain and Civil War – political and social divisions, to November 1936

Purges and Hysteria in the Soviet Union – the USSR from the early thirties to 1938

Roosevelt and Approaching War in Europe – isolationism, the economy, Jews and immigration

Crisis and War in Europe, 1937-40 – Munich, Kristallnacht, the Hitler-Stalin pact, pacifism and war

Japan and Emperor Hirohito to 1936 – extremist patriots, opportunism and moderates

China, Civil War and Japan's Intrusion, to 1936 – Chiang Kai-shek, the Long March, and an alliance with Moscow

Japan Wars against China and the Soviet Union: 1936-38 – Japan in Manchuria and war in China

Pearl Harbor and War in Southeast Asia – March 1940 through December 1941

War in Europe, 1941-45 – from the Invasion of the Soviet Union to victory for the Allies

War against Japan, 1942-45 – spirituality, fear and bombs

Science and Philosophy

Mach and Einstein – quantum mechanics, determinism, time

Economics: the Austrian School and Keynes – Böhm-Bawerk, Schumpeter, Mises, Bukharin, Keynes

Spengler, Durkheim and Weber – spirit, decline, sociology, structural functionalism, anti-positivism, Tönnies

Fascism and Philosophy – Pareto, Gentile, Rosenberg, Elisabeth Förster-Nietzsche, Kita Ikki, Nakano Seigo

Dewey, Russell and Whitehead – education, pragmatism, modesty, knowledge limits


Religion in Russia and the Soviet Union, to 1945 – the Russian Orthodox Church