18th and 19th Centuries

Sweden, Russia and the Great Northern War, to 1740 – failure and a new age of liberty in Sweden

War in 18th Century Europe to 1763 – conflict over what monarch rules where

Frederick, Maria and Catherine – three monarchs in the Age of Enlightenment

Britain in the mid-1700s – progress in education, commerce and law

The American Revolution – 1707 to 1791, from social change to ratification of the Constitution

First Barbary War – U.S. policies from 1770s to 1805, and Marines to the shores of Tripoli

The French in the mid-1700s – monarchy, church, class, economy

The French Revolution – to 1797, defeat for the Parisian "mob," and Napoleon as First Council.

Britain, Ireland, the U.S. and the War of 1812 – England, its Irish colony and war with France and the U.S.

Haiti, 1789 to 1806 – Independence from French rule, freedom from slavery and continuing violence.

Napoleon's Wars, Mistakes and Fall – Napoleon recklessly drives France to defeat.

Conservative Order and Counter-Enlightenment – victors in Europe oppose revolution

Rebellion in Greece, Spain and Latin America – defying the conservative order

Latin America after Independence – disappointments in South America and Mexico

Britain and the Industrial Revolution, to 1830 – new wealth, poverty and unrest

Reform and Revolution in Europe to 1850 – uprisings across Europe, and reforms

Muslims in the Middle East, 1700 to 1837 – Iran and the Ottoman Empire.

Africa, Empires and Slavery, 1801-60 – guns, war, Arabs, Ottomans, British, Boers and French

Canada and the United States, 1814 to 1846 – migrations, economic developments and slavery

Mexico, the United States and War – Texas and the Alamo, Mexico to 1855, the US and its war with Mexico

The British in Asia – China, India, Ceylon, Burma, Afghanistan, Opium wars and the Sepoy Mutiny

Europeans into Oceania – The British and French in Tahiti, Australia, New Zealand, the Maori

The Crimean War, 1853 to 1856 – the British, French and Turks against Holy Russia

Civil War in the United States – different societies, panic in the South and the war from 1861 to 1865

Reconstruction and Western Expansion – the US South to 1877. Penetrating Indian territories.

The "wild" West and Billy the Kid – New Mexico, politics, law and disorder

The United States, 1871 to 1900 – new fences for agriculture in the West, big industry, reforms, labor unrest

The US Overseas – Cuba, Hawaii and the Philippines

Canada, 1850 to 1900 – Dominion status, economy, westward expansion, rebellion

Russia, 1856 to 1900 – reform, industrialization, student revolutionaries and retrogression

Nationalism and Empire in Europe – unifications, alliances and path to the Great War

The Balkans and Path to the Great War – rebellion against Turkish rule, a conference and German alliances.

Class and Politics in Germany – economic growth, social change, power, wages and the prospect for revolution

More Imperialism – Jamaica, Egypt, Afghanistan, sub-Sahara and Oceania

China's Empire – a multi-ethnic state, including Manchuria and Mongolia, and tributary relations with other states

Japan from Tokugawa to Meiji – restoration of the emperor, economic progress and Japanese imperialism

Korea, to 1900 – indigenous inspiration helps Christianity's success. The French, Chinese, Japanese and Russians

Science and Philosophy

The Enlightenment – contributions from Britain, France and Germany

Optimism, Adam Smith, Liberals and Utopians – 1750 to 1883, economics and social theory

Health, Geology, Biology and Sociology – science, more secularism, Darwin and atheism

Philosophers and Historians – Hegel; Kierkegaard; Schopenhauer; Nietzsche; Treitschke, Gobineau

Karl Marx and Europe – Marx from liberal to communist, and his legacy