Timeline: 1661 to 1670

1662  Charles marries a Portuguese princess and acquires Tangier in North Africa and Bombay on the west coast of India.

1665  Extensive use of the microscope has begun. Robert Hooke, an English natural philosopher, finds in cork and live plants what he calls cells.

1665  Speaking of those in the pirate business, Barbados is described as a dung hill where England casts its rubbish.

1665  Another war between the English and Dutch has begun. English soldiers seize the town of New Amsterdam and rename it New York after the king's brother, the Duke of York.

1665  Two-thirds of London is evacuated to avoid the Black Plague, but nearly 70,000 die of the disease in one week.

1665  In England, Elizabeth Gaunt is burned at the stake for treason: her involvement in the Rye House Plot.

1666  It is an era of big city fires. London is a city of mostly thatched roofs or timber and pitch. Much of London burns.  Seeing a possible connection between the fire and God's displeasure, authorities begin an official investigation into atheism in London, and the English philosopher, Thomas Hobbes, burns some of his writings to hide evidence that could be used against him. The city is to be rebuilt with brick and stone and institutionalized fire fighting developed.

1667  It has been two years since the first successful blood transfusion – dogs kept alive by transfusion of blood from other dogs. In England and in France this year there are separate reports of successful transfusions of blood from lambs to humans. There will be failures to keep a patient alive, and within ten years transfusions will be prohibited by law in both countries.

1667  The war between Russia and Poland, which began in 1654, ends after three years of negotiations. Russia has won possession of most of the Ukraine. Russia's army has moved closer toward becoming a permanent (standing) force. Russia has become a more significant force in East Europe. The Ukraine is split between its Roman Catholic west and an Eastern Orthodox east.

1668  The French establish their first factory in India, at Surat.

1670  On the Atlantic coast the Carolina colony, Puritans found Charles Town (Charleston) named for Charles II.

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