(FREDERICK, MARIA and CATHERINE – continued)
Catherine the Great
In 1745, a German princess named Sophie Augusta Fredrika, from Anhalt-Zerbst, married the 17-year-old grandson of Peter the Great, who, seventeen years later, during the Seven Years' War, became Peter III. In those seventeen years, Sophie had converted to Eastern Orthodox Christianity, she had endured the philandering of and alienation from her husband and had endured isolation and abject subordination to her husband's mother – Elizabeth I. Sophie read many books, and she had love affairs of her own. And a few months after her husband inherited the throne, she joined a revolt against him, led by one of her lovers. Peter III conveniently died in prison in mid-July, 1662, and, in November, Sophie was crowned in an elaborate ceremony in Moscow and became Catherine II.
Catherine II considered herself enlightened. She corresponded with learned men, including Voltaire. She wished to be a "defender of oppressed innocence," to spread education and to otherwise reform Russia. She exercised her authority over the Eastern Orthodox Church – which owned one-third of Russia's agricultural land and one-third of its serfs. Catherine confiscated much of its lands and left the church's clergy as state paid functionaries.
Catherine gave up wanting to create an "enlightened" constitution and political reforms. Wanting to keep all of her power, she joined others in believing that absolute monarchy was the best form of government – best, she believed, when done properly. Russian society appeared to her too chaotic for any sharing of power. But she knew that to rule she had to have the support of a segment of society that had a collective power of sorts, and to this end she tried to please the nobility. She released them from the obligation to serve the state that had been imposed on the nobility by Ivan the Terrible. She extended the nobility's power over the people living on and working their lands. Under her rule, serfdom was extended to over a million people who had previously been freed.
Failing at reform that benefited common people, Catherine sought distraction for her subjects in the grandeur of imperial expansion. She sought to expand Russian rule to the Black Sea and to Constantinople, to return Christianity there, and to free Moldavia and Walachia from the Ottomans. Already she had expanded her influence in Poland, with the support of her new ally, Frederick the Great. After Augustus III of Saxony and Poland had died (in 1763), she installed as king of Poland one of her lovers, Stanislaus Poniatovski, who became Stanislaus II, Catherine believing that his lack of qualifications for that honor would make him all the more grateful for his appointment, and therefore more subservient.
In 1768, Catherine's army pushed southwest from the Dnieper River into the Balkans, scoring victories and calling on Christians to join them against the Ottomans. Another Russian force invaded and captured the Crimea. A Russian fleet sailed from the Baltic Sea through the Strait of Gibraltar and into Ottoman waters in the Aegean Sea where, on July 6, 1770, near the island of Chios, they sank the Turkish navy.
The Russian fleet was unable to do more for the Russian effort following this victory. The war on land was bogged down, and the Christians in Ottoman lands had failed to join the Russians. Austria was concerned about Russian expansion into the Balkans. To allay the hostility of the Habsburgs, Frederick, who was allied with the Russians, organized an agreement with Russia and Joseph II of Austria. The three of them were to take lands from Poland. Maria Theresa had always gone to war for territory that she believed was hers – namely Silesia – and she objected to her son taking land that did not belong by tradition to the Habsburgs. But her son, Joseph, had no such objection. In what became known as the First Partition of Poland, in 1772, the Habsburgs extended their rule into Galacia, Brandenburg-Prussia received land between Pomerania with East Prussia – except for the port city of Danzig, and Russia expanded to the W. Dvina River (near the port city of Riga) and to the Dnieper River, halfway to the city of Minsk, adding 1.3 million subjects to Catherine's rule.
After the death of the Ottoman Sultan, Mustafa, in July 1774, Ottoman resistance to the Russians weakened, and the Ottomans were ready to settle with the Russians. Catherine was facing a peasant uprising that had begun among Cossacks in the Ural River region, led by Emelian Pugachev. The rising spread to serfs, miners in the Urals, factory workers, Bashkirs, Tatars and other minorities within Russia, and to those Christians called Old Believers, and the revolt was threatening Moscow. Catherine settled with the Ottomans. By the Treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji, Russia received full possession of Azov and land south to the Kuban River; Russia's border shifted westward to the Dnieper River; Russia acquired land on the coast of the Black Sea; and it acquired a right of passage through the straits by Constantinople into the Mediterranean. The treaty proclaimed the Tatars of the Crimea autonomous within the Ottoman Empire. And Moldavia and Walachia remained within the Ottoman Empire.
Catherine sent troops released from the war against the peasant revolt. Landlords, government officials and army officers eagerly supported Catherine, and Catherine's army easily defeated the uncoordinated rebel armies. Pugachev was brought to Moscow in chains and executed in public in an especially cruel fashion.
In 1783 – three years after Maria Theresa's death at the age of sixty-three - Catherine annexed the Crimea, and many of the Crimea's Tatars fled to Ottoman territory. That year, Irakli II of Georgia allied his multi-national state with Russia, Irakli acknowledging Russian suzerainty and Russia guaranteeing Georgian independence.
In 1786 – the year that Frederick died – Mozart's comic opera about oppression, The Marriage of Figaro, appeared. Three years later came the French Revolution. And two years after that, in the year of his death, at age thirty-five, came Mozart's other comic opera about oppression: The Magic Flute.
The revolution that swept France frightened Catherine, and she turned against intellectuals in Russia who sympathized with the revolution. After the executions of Louis XVI and his wife, Marie Antoinette (daughter of Maria Theresa) in 1793, Catherine broke off relations with France, proclaimed six weeks of mourning and welcomed refugees from France.
Also in 1793, Catherine, Joseph of Austria, and Frederick's nephew – Frederick William II – took advantage of the turmoil in France to confiscate more Polish lands, in what was called the Second Partition of Poland. In 1794 a national uprising by the Poles was crushed by the Russians, and, in 1795, Russia, Austria and Brandenburg-Prussia participated in what was to be known as the Third Partition of Poland. Brandenburg-Prussia took Warsaw, the Habsburgs took Krakow and expanded northward along the banks of the Bug River, and Catherine took Courland, Brest-Litovsk and what was left of Poland.
Catherine was opposed to educating common people, believing that if the uneducated were educated they would stop obeying.
Catherine died in 1796, at the age of 67, of what was called apoplexy.
The Romanovs, by Virginia Cowles, 1971
Catherine the Great, a PBS documentary, 2005
Copyright © 2000-2014 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.