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Timeline: 1721 to 1730

1721  Sweden makes peace with Russia, recognizing territory lost to Russia. Russia is now the dominant power in the Baltic region. Peter the Great declares himself an emperor.

1721 Mongols invade Tibet and sack Lhasa. A military force sent by the Qing emperor, Kangxi, is hailed as liberators, It drives the Mongols out and re-establishes Qing authority. The Qing install Kesang Gyatso as the 7th Dalai Lama.

1722  Shah Sultan Hussein of Iran is religiously devout and has been indifferent to affairs of state. He is the last of the Safavid sultans. Former vassals from Afghanistan invade Iran, capture the Safavid capital, Esfahan, and kill Hussein.

1723  Ottoman Turks and Russians take advantage of the demise of the Safavids and seize former Safavid territory.

1724  A science academy is created at St. Petersburg.

1724  Japan begins successful forest management reform. Timber cutting is reduced.

1725  The "Golden Age of Piracy," centered in the Caribbean Islands, comes to an end. Peace and sailors out of work had contributed to it. Pirates had turned against the British government for interfering with their freedom to pursue their business. War between the pirates and the British government is won by the British government.

1725  Peter the Great dies at age 52 after plunging into icy waters to save drowning soldiers.

1725  The largest encyclopedia ever printed, consisting of 10,000 chapters, is commissioned by the Manchu (Qing) emperor, Yongzheng.

1726  The city of Montevideo is founded by Spaniards in order to block further intrusions by Portuguese from Brazil.

1726  François Arouet, to become known as Voltaire, is sent into exile from his home in France. In England he increases his admiration for British institutions.

1727  In Brazil, Europeans begin planting coffee.

1727  In Turkey, Ibrahim Muteferrika is the first Muslim to operate a modern printing press. He sees the Ottoman Empire's weakness against Europeans as a military matter and suggests that European methods of warfare be studied.

1728  In India the Mughal Empire has been fragmenting. A decisive battle is won by the Hindu Marathas against the Mughals. This is the Battle of Palkhed, fought on February 28 near the city of Nashik, Maharashtra.

1729  An Afshar tribesman (Turkish) and talented military leader, Nader, drives the Afghans out of Iran.

1730  King Agaja of Dahomey is in competition with the kingdom of Oyo for captives to be sold as slaves to Europeans. King Agaja has been a leading exporter of slaves and an importer of firearms. Oyo has invaded his territory and Agaja agrees to pay tribute to Oyo.

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