1694 In Iran, Shah Suleiman (Sulayman) has died, and his rule follows the tradition of being passed to his son, Shah Husayn. Shah Husayn is not much interested in affairs of state. He is to let influence pass to courtiers and eunuchs and to seek instruction on what to do from the ulama.
1694 In Africa, the English destroy the French fort on the Senegal River.
1695 In Africa, the French blow up the English fort on the Gambia River.
1696 Peter's brother, Ivan, dies. At the age of 24, Peter becomes Russia's sole tsar.
1697 Peter has been building Russia's naval strength is ready to take on the Ottomans. He drives them out of Azov. And that year the Austrians defeat the Ottomans at Zenta, about 100 hundred miles southwest of Budapest.
1698 With an entourage and sometimes disguised as a commoner, Peter is visiting Western Europe to examine the international situation, to strengthen a coalition against the Ottomans and to learn about the economies and cultures of Western Europe.
1699 Under diplomatic pressure from the Dutch, British and Venetians, the Ottomans sign the Treaty of Karlowitz – a dictated treaty. Hungary and Transylvania are ceded to Austria. Podolia, occupied by the Ottomans in 1672, is returned to Poland. The Ottomans give up Morea (the Peloponnesian Peninsula) and most of Dalmatia.
1700 The world is populated by between 600 and 680 million people, up from between 540 to 580 in 1600 – roughly calculated.
1700 Life expectancy at birth in England is 36 years. (Calculated in a study in the 1980s by the Cambridge Group for the History of Population and Social Structure.)
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