Jan 12 A political revolution is underway in Iran. A coalition of merchants, religious leaders and intellectuals are pushing for Iran to enter the modern era and establish a constitution and national assembly.
Jan 26 In the US, Doubleday publishes a novel The Jungle by a socialist journalist, Upton Sinclair. The book focuses on a diligent immigrant worker hoping to achieve the "American Dream" for himself and his family. The book exposes con artist business practices and corruptions in the meat packing industry. Lobbyists for the meat packing industry will attempt to water down meaningful legislation, but President Theodore Roosevelt will advocate and Congress will pass legislation involving meaningful government inspections and regulations. Sinclair will be frustrated over his socialist message being mitigated.
Feb 1 A former miner, Albert Horsely, alias Harry Orchard, has been arrested in connection with the murder of Idaho's former goveror. In jail for a month, he is interogated by an anti-union Pinkerton detective, James McParland. (Pinkerton is a private agency.) Horsely is threatened with hanging. Apparantly to save his life he confesses to the murder and implicates leaders of the United Mine Workers, including prominent socialist labor leader William Haywood. McParland perjures himself to a judge and gains extradition papers, and in one week he has Hayward and two other union leaders, Charles Moyer and George Pettibone snatched from their homes in Denver and transported by train as prisoners to Idaho. They are to stand trial in 1907.
Feb 10 The British launch a new class of battleship, the dreadnought, which makes other battleships obsolete in the reach of their big guns.
Mar 10 A coal mine explosion at Courrières in France kills 1,060.
Apr 7 The Algeciras Conference in Spain concludes with an agreement that affirms the independence of Morocco and guarantees the freedom of nations such as Germany to trade there. The purpose of the conference was to placate Germany's objections to France establishing a protectorate over Morocco.
Apr 9 The Pentecostal movement begins in Los Angeles. It's called the Azusa Street Revival and is led by William J. Seymour, an African American preacher. It is characterized by ecstatic spiritual experiences, a belief in miracles, speaking in tongues, and inter-racial mingling. Some theologians in the US will describe it as outrageous.
Apr 18 An earthquake strikes San Francisco at 5:12 in the morning (estimated magnitude 7.8). Fire breaks out. Eighty percent of the city is destroyed and around 3,000 people killed.
Apr 23 Russia's Tsar Nicholas II has pledged to provide broad participation in a legislative body, the Duma, and to give this Duma oversight powers. It's a surrender to the world trend toward constitutionalism. But having pacified the revolution of 1905 with promises, he has not given up on retaining the autocratic power that he believed was his as a gift from God. Today the tsar gives a constitution to the Russian people. He retains his absolute power. The Constitution gives Nicolas the power to appoint and dismiss ministers, to issue decrees, to veto legislation, to dismiss the Duma at any time and the Constitution can't be changed without his approval.
Jun 30 In the US the Pure Food and Drug Act becomes effective. It is designed to protect the public and is the creation of President
Aug 5 In Iran the monarch Muzaffar al-Din Shah's struggle to maintain the old order comes to an end. He agrees to a constitutional monarchy.
Aug 22 The first phonograph (record player) is manufactured.
Aug 23 Cuba's president since 1902, Tomás Estrada Palma, requests United States intervention to contain a rebellion against his rule.
Sep 11 In South Africa a lawyer, Mohandas Gandhi, begins nonviolent resistance to the mistreatment of his fellow Indians.
Sep 29 Cuba's President Palma has resigned believing the US does not intend to save his regime. President Theodore Roosevelt names William Howard Taft has the provisional governor of Cuba. US Marines arrive to prevent fighting between Cubans and to protect US economic interests. Cuba's Liberals are pleased by Palma's resignation and lay down their arms. A provisional occupation government by the US begins.
Oct 1 The Grand Duchy of Finland becomes the first nation to grant women universal suffrage and to include the right of women to stand as candidates.
Nov 22 Russia's Prime Minister Pyotr Stolypin seeks to dampen class unrest and to gain support for the tsar from Russia's majority: its peasants. He begins a farming system that emphasizes more individual freedom and private ownership, and he initiates a program to assist peasants in settling lands in Siberia.
Dec 11 Under public pressure, the San Francisco Board of Education issues an order that bans Asian children, including Japanese, from white primary schools. All Japanese and Korean students are ordered to join the Chinese at the segregated Oriental School established in 1884. President Roosevelt sends a representative to San Francisco in an effort to persuade the school board to change its decision. He thinks the school segregation order a "wicked absurdity."
Copyright © 1998-2018 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.