macrohistory & world report

Republic of Zambia

Zambia's location among other states in the south of Africa

Zambia and neighboring states in Africa

World Factbook as of October 2014: "Zambia's economy has experienced strong growth in recent years... Privatization of government-owned copper mines in the 1990s relieved the government from covering mammoth losses generated by the industry and greatly increased copper mining output and profitability to spur economic growth. Copper output has increased steadily since 2004, due to higher copper prices and foreign investment. Zambia's dependency on copper makes it vulnerable to depressed commodity prices, but record high copper prices and a bumper maize crop in 2010 helped Zambia rebound quickly from the world economic slowdown that began in 2008... Despite a strong economy, poverty remains a significant problem in Zambia, made worse by a high birth rate, relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market distorting agricultural policies."

Economic growth rate
2013: 6%
2012: 7.2%
2011: 6.7%
2010: 7.6%
2009: 6.4%

Labor force in agriculture
2004: 85%

Public debt: 2011: 27.3%

Export commodities
Copper/cobalt 64%, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton

Export partners
2009: Switzerland 51.3%, China 20.3%, South Africa 9.2%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 4.6%

Export/import ratio
2011: exports $9.008 billion, imports $6.453 billion

Per capita income:
2013: $8,200, 132nd among 228 countries.

Income Distribution – GINI index
Ranks 9th among 141 countries (lower rank number is less equal).

Health expenditures
2009: 4.8% of GDP



Living in an urban area
2010: 36%
2008 : 35%

Birth / death rate
2014: 42.46 / 12.92

Net migration rate
2011: A net loss of 0.76 persons per 1,000 population.

Ethnic groups
2000 census: African 99.5% (includes Bemba, Tonga, Chewa, Lozi, Nsenga, Tumbuka, Ngoni, Lala, Kaonde, Lunda, and other African groups), other 0.5% (includes Europeans, Asians, and Americans)

Christian 50 to 75%, Muslim and Hindu 24 to 49%, indigenous beliefs 1%.

Literacy, Age 15 and Older
2010: males 89.0% females 88.5%
2003: males 86.8%, females 74.8%


South Central Africa, east of Angola. North of Zimbabwe. Landlocked. Slightly larger than Texas. Tropical. Capital: Lusaka


Chief of state and the head of government is the president, elected by popular vote for five-year term and eligible for a second term.

Unicameral National Assembly: 8 members appointed by the president and 150 elected by popular vote for five-year terms.

Recent History

October 24, 1964: the country declares independence from Britain. Kenneth Kaunda becomes its first head of state. Zambia is governed by Kenneth Kaunda and his socialist United National Independence Party (UNIP) from 1964 until 1991.

March 2006: Those in power have banned thirteen opposition political parties.

June 2008; Rupiah Banda of the Movement for Multiparty Democracy Party is elected president.

September 2011: Michael Sata of the Patriotic Front Party is elected President and takes office three days later. His opponent, Rupiah Banda, expresses satisfaction that the election was done in a democratic and civilized way..

Copyright © 2009-2013 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.