macrohistory & world report

Republic of Uganda

Map of Uganda

Uganda (capital Kampala) and neighboring states

World Factbook as of November 2014: "The colonial boundaries created by Britain to delimit Uganda grouped together a wide range of ethnic groups with different political systems and cultures. These differences prevented the establishment of a working political community after independence was achieved in 1962... Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, small deposits of copper, gold, and other minerals, and recently discovered oil. Uganda has never conducted a national minerals survey. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government – with the support of foreign countries and international agencies – has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. Since 1990 economic reforms ushered in an era of solid economic growth based on continued investment in infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, lower inflation, better domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. The global economic downturn hurt Uganda's exports; however, Uganda's GDP growth has largely recovered due to past reforms and sound management of the downturn. Oil revenues and taxes will become a larger source of government funding as oil comes on line in the next few years. Instability in South Sudan is a risk for the Ugandan economy because Uganda's main export partner is Sudan, and Uganda is a key destination for Sudanese refugees. Unreliable power, high energy costs, inadequate transportation infrastructure, and corruption inhibit economic development and investor confidence."

Economic growth rate
2013: 5.6%
2012: 2.8%
2011: 6.2%

Labor force in agriculture
1999: 82%

Export commodities
Coffee, fish and fish products, tea, cotton, flowers, horticultural products; gold

Esport partners
2009: Sudan 15.3%, Kenya 10.2%, Rwanda 8.5%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 7.8%, UAE 7.7%, Netherlands 6.4%, Germany 5.4%, Belgium 4.1%

2011: exports $2.582 billion, imports $4.771 billion

Income Distribution – GINI index
Ranks 47th among 140 countries (lower rank number is less equal).

Health expenditures
2009: 8.2% of GDP<


2014: 35.92 million

Population growth rate per year:
2014: 3.24%, 9th in the world

Wikipedia 2014: "Corruption in Uganda is characterized by grand-scale theft of public funds and petty corruption involving public officials at all levels of society as well as a widespread political patronage systems."

Life expectancy (at birth)
2014: 54.46 years

Infant mortality, per 1,000 live births
2014: 60.82 deaths, 21st among 224 countries

Birth / death ratio per 1,000 population
2014: 44.17 / 10.97

Living in an urban area
2010: 13%

Ethnic groups
2002 census: Baganda 16.9%, Banyakole 9.5%, Basoga 8.4%, Bakiga 6.9%, Iteso 6.4%, Langi 6.1%, Acholi 4.7%, Bagisu 4.6%, Lugbara 4.2%, Bunyoro 2.7%, other 29.6%

2002 census: Roman Catholic 41.9%, Protestant 42% (Anglican 35.9%, Pentecostal 4.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.5%), Muslim 12.1%, other 3.1%, none 0.9%

Net migration rate
2011: Net loss of 0.02 persons per 1,000 population

Literacy, Age 15 and Older
2010: males 82.6, females 64.6
2002 males 76.8%, females 57.7%


South of Sudan and north of Rwanda and Tanzania. West of Kenya and East of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Landlocked. Equivalent to 486 by 486 kilometers or 304 by 304 miles. Capital: Kampala, on the northern shore of Lake Victoria.   


The president is both chief of state, head of the government and commander of the armed forces. As of November 2014 he is Yoweri Museveni, in power since 1986. In the mid-to-late 1990s, writes Wikipedia, "he was lauded by the West as part of a new generation of African leaders."

The Parliament of Uganda has 215 Constituency Representatives, 79 District Woman Representatives, 10 Uganda People's Defence Forces Representatives, 5 Representatives of the Youth, 5 Representatives of Persons with Disabilities, 5 Representatives of Workers, and 13 Ex-officio Members.

Recent History

Wikipedia: "As of January 2014, homosexuality is illegal in Uganda and carries a minimum sentence of two years in prison and a maximum of life. Sodomy laws from the British colonial era are still on the books, and there is a strong social bias against homosexuality. Gays and lesbians face discrimination and harassment at the hands of the media, police, teachers, and other groups." Dec 23, 2008: The gay community in Uganda is estimated by gay activists to number around 500,000 – about one-thirtieth of the population above the age of fifteen.

Achieved independence from Britain in 1962.

Dictatorial rule by Idi Amin from 1971 to 1979. The military in the person of Yoweri Kaguta Museveni seized power in 1986. Elected to a five-year term as President in 1996 – the country's first popular presidential election. Museveni re-elected on 12 March 2001 with 69.3% of the votes. He said he would stand down at the next election, but he changed his mind and ran again, and was re-elected. The Supreme Court of Uganda ruled that the 2006 election was marred by intimidation, violence, voter disenfranchisement, and other irregularities. But the Court voted 4-3 to uphold the results. Museveni was re-elected again on 11 February 2011.

Copyright © 2009-2013 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.