macrohistory & world report

Republic of the Sudan

map of Serbia amid neighboring countries

Serbia (capital Belgrade) and neighboring countries

Map of the Republic of Sudan

Sudan (capital Khartoum) and neighboring states

Wealth and National Well-Being

Country Comparisons:

World Factbook: "Sudan is an extremely poor country that has had to deal with social conflict, civil war, and the July 2011 secession of South Sudan - the region of the country that had been responsible for about three-fourths of the former Sudan's total oil production. The oil sector had driven much of Sudan's GDP growth since it began exporting oil in 1999."

Corruption Index
2011: 1.6 (10 is perfect, Sudan among the worst)

Economic growth
2011: -0.2%
2010: 6.5%
2009: 4.6%

Oil exports
2009: 383,900 barrels per day (ranking 35th in the world)

Import/export balance
2011: exports 91.4% of imports in cash value – an unfavorable balance

Health expenditures
2009: 7.3% of GDP


Ethnic groups
Sudanese Arab (approximately 70%), Fur, Beja, Nuba, Fallata

Sunni Muslim, small Christian minority

Living in an urban area
2010: 40% of total population

Net migration rate
2012: A net loss of 4.52 persons per 1,000 population per year.

Recent History

Independence from Britain in 1956.

In 2003 an independence movement in Darfur attacked government targets. Darfur's population is Muslim, with some Arabs and some blacks. An age old dispute existed between black farmers and the mostly nomadic Arabs over land and rights.  The Darfur rebels claimed they were being neglected by Khartoum, Sudan's capital and predominantly Arab, and they claimed that Khartoum was oppressing the blacks in favor of Arabs. The rebels won the attention of the government. The government supported "self-defense" militias who fought the independence movement. They are accused of "cleansing" areas of blacks and taking as their reward loot, land and access to women in the form of rape.  Sudan's government has blamed the assaults on nomadic, camel-riding, semi-automatic rifle toting Arabs called the Janjaweed, described by Sudan's president, Omar al-Bashir, as "thieves and gangsters." The government has promised to do something about the assaults." Meanwhile, according to a BBC News item, published on April 5, 2005, "More than two million people have left their homes and many thousands have been killed."

July 2005: Journalist Andrea Mitchell of NBC News asked President Omar el-Bashir "Why should the U.S. believe the Sudanese government will stop the killing when the government is still supporting the militia?" Sudanese security guards grabbed her from behind and carried her out of the room, her feet dangling off the ground, while U.S. State Department officials traveling to Sudan with Mitchell and Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice shouted at them to leave Mitchell alone

March 5, 2010: The U.N. reports that half of south Sudan's population is desperately short of food. The News Hour reports a "fourfold increase in hunger this year, due to drought and growing violence, violence stemming from age-old local conflicts and, some fear, echoes of the north-south civil war."

July 9, 2011: South Sudan becomes independent of the Republic of Sudan.

BBC News

Copyright © 2009-2013 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.