Romania (capital Bucharest) and neighboring states
Country Comparisons: chart
World Factbook: "Romania, which joined the European Union on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets. Domestic consumption and investment fueled strong GDP growth, but led to large current account imbalances. Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate its business environment."
Economic growth rate
2010: minus 1.3%
2009: minus 7.1%
Labor force in agriculture
2011: 37.8% of GDP
2010: machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals and fuels
Income Distribution – gini index
Ranks 100th among 140 countries (higher rank number is more equal, lower rank number is less equal). More equal than Britain, which ranks 94th, and the US, which ranks 45th.
2009: 5.4% of GDP
Military expenditures as a percentage of GDP
Living in an urban area:
Net migration rate
2012: A net loss of 0.26 persons per 1,000 population per year
Density for 2005: 97 persons per square kilometer.
2002 census: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4%
2002 census: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1%
South of Ukraine, west of Moldavia, north of Bulgaria, east of Hungary and Serbia. 225 kilometers of coastline along the Black Sea. Equivalent to 487 by 487 kilometers or 304 by 304 miles.
Chief of state: Traian Basescu (president) since 27 August 2012, Romanian Orthodox, former Communist Party, now independent. Head of government: Victor Ponta (prime minister) since 7 May 2012, Social Democratic Party.
Parliamentary democracy. The president is elected for a five-year term by popular vote. Bicameral parliament.
9 May 9, 1877: independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on July13, 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin.
March 26, 1881: Kingdom proclaimed)\
December 30, 1947: The Communists declare a People's Republic. It is , formalized with the constitution of April 13, 1948.
December 1989: The regime of Nicolae Ceausescu is overthrown by a popular uprising.
December 8, 1991: A new constitution is approved in a national referendum.
2007: Romania joins the European Union.
From the BBC, September 13, 2008: "Eighteen years ago, there were as many horses and carts on the roads as cars. The grass in the meadows was cut by scythe. In the villages, every family squeezed every scrap of food they could from their patch of land. They toiled unceasingly, through all the hours of daylight. Now, the grass is cut by machine, the horses and carts are disappearing fast, the vegetable gardens are shrinking. The hard peasant life has softened."
Copyright © 2009-2011 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.