macrohistory & world report


Map of Romania

Romania (capital Bucharest) and neighboring states

World Factbook as of November 2014: "Romania, which joined the EU on 1 January 2007, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs... Romania's macroeconomic gains have only recently started to spur creation of a middle class and to address Romania's widespread poverty. Corruption and red tape continue to permeate the business environment. As a result of the global financial crisis, Romania signed on to a $26 billion emergency assistance package from the IMF, the EU, and other international lenders... Economic growth accelerated in 2013, driven by strong industrial exports and an excellent agricultural harvest; in December 2013 inflation dropped to a historical low annual rate of 1.6%."

Economic growth rate
2013: 3.5%
2012: 0.6%
2011: 1.5%

Labor force in agriculture
2012: 29%
2010: 30%

Unemployment rate
2011: 7%
2010: 6.9%

Public debt
2011: 37.8% of GDP

Export commodities
2010: machinery and equipment, metals and metal products, textiles and footwear, chemicals, agricultural products, minerals and fuels

Income Distribution – GINI index
Ranks 100th among 140 countries (lower rank number is less equal).

Health expenditures
2009: 5.4% of GDP

Military expenditures as a percentage of GDP
2007: 1.9%


Living in an urban area:
2010: 57%

Net migration rate
2012: A net loss of 0.26 persons per 1,000 population per year

Density for 2005: 97 persons per square kilometer.

Ethnic groups
2002 census: Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4%

2002 census: Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 86.8%, Protestant (various denominations including Reformate and Pentecostal) 7.5%, Roman Catholic 4.7%, other (mostly Muslim) and unspecified 0.9%, none 0.1%


South of Ukraine, west of Moldavia, north of Bulgaria, east of Hungary and Serbia. 225 kilometers of coastline along the Black Sea. Equivalent to 487 by 487 kilometers or 304 by 304 miles.


Parliamentary democracy. The president is elected for a five-year term by popular vote. Bicameral parliament.

Capital: Bucharest.

Recent History

9 May 9, 1877: independence proclaimed from the Ottoman Empire; independence recognized on July13, 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin.

March 26, 1881: Kingdom proclaimed)\

December 30, 1947: The Communists declare a People's Republic. It is , formalized with the constitution of April 13, 1948.

December 1989: The regime of Nicolae Ceausescu is overthrown by a popular uprising.

December 8, 1991: A new constitution is approved in a national referendum.

2007: Romania joins the European Union.

From the BBC, September 13, 2008: "Eighteen years ago, there were as many horses and carts on the roads as cars. The grass in the meadows was cut by scythe. In the villages, every family squeezed every scrap of food they could from their patch of land. They toiled unceasingly, through all the hours of daylight. Now, the grass is cut by machine, the horses and carts are disappearing fast, the vegetable gardens are shrinking. The hard peasant life has softened."

The World Factbook

Copyright © 2009-2013 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.