macrohistory & world report

Republic of Moldova

Map of Moldova

Moldova (its capital Chisinau, pronounced kishenew) between neighboring states

World Factbook as of November 2014: "Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and good farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.6 billion from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Russia, and other former Soviet Bloc countries. With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a growing $5 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the separatist Transnistria region. In August 2013, work began on a new pipeline between Moldova and Romania that may eventually break Russia's monopoly on Moldova's gas supplies. The government's goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2013 due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since 2009, and to the receipt of EU trade preferences. Moldova is poised to sign an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU during fall 2014, connecting Moldovan products to the world's largest market. Still, growth has been hampered by high prices for Russian natural gas, a Russian import ban on Moldovan wine, increased foreign scrutiny of Moldovan agricultural products, and by Moldova's large external debt. Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, corruption, higher fuel prices, Russian pressure, and the illegal separatist regime in Moldova's Transnistria region."

Economic growth rate
2011: 6%
2010: 7.1%
2009: minus 6%

Unemployment rate
2011 (3rd quarter): 6.2%
2010: 7.4%09: 2.6%

Public debt
2011: 29.3% of GDP

Exports - commodities:

foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners:

Russia 28.2%, Romania 16.9%, Italy 9.7%, Ukraine 6.9%, Germany 5%, UK 4.6% (2011 est.)

Income Distribution 7-- GINI index
Ranks 75th among 140 countries (lower rank number is less equal). Less equal than Britain, which ranks 94th, and more equal than the US, which ranks 45th.

Health expenditures
2009: 11.9% of GDP

Military expenditures as a percentage of GDP
2005: 0.4%


Living in an urban area
2010: 47%

Net migration rate

2012: A net loss of 10.02 persons per 1,000 population per year.

Ethnic groups
2004 census: Moldovan/Romanian 78.2%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.8%, Gagauz 4.4%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1.3%

2000: Eastern Orthodox 98%, Jewish 1.5%, Baptist and other 0.5%


Between Ukraine and Romania. Landlocked. Rolling steppe land. 33,843 square miles, equivalent to 184 by 184 kilometers or roughly 115 by 115 miles. Capital: Chisinau.


The president is elected by Parliament for a four-year term (eligible for a second term. Parliament is unicameral with 101 seats and members elected on an at-large basis by popular vote to serve four-year terms.

The Soviet Union took Moldova from Romania at the end of World War II. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, Moldova became independent, but with Russian forces remaining. Modova is a member of the Commonwealth of Independent States, former republics within the Soviet Union that today are closely associated with Russia economically, in defense and foreign policy.

Moldova has a parliament. Its elections have been considered free and fair by international observers.


World Factbook:Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Dniester River supporting a Transnistrian separatist region with a Slavic majority population of mostly Ukrainians and Russians.

The World Factbook

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