macrohistory & world report

Republic of Macedonia

Map of Macedonia

Macedonia (capital Skopje) and surrounding states

World Factbook as of November 2014: "Since its independence in 1991, Macedonia has made significant progress in liberalizing its economy and improving its business environment, but has lagged the Balkan region in attracting foreign investment. Unemployment has remained consistently high at more than 30% since 2008, but may be overstated based on the existence of an extensive gray market, estimated to be between 20% and 45% of GDP, that is not captured by official statistics. Macedonia's economy is closely linked to Europe as a customer for exports and source of investment, and has suffered as a result of prolonged weakness in the euro zone. Macedonia maintained macroeconomic stability through the global financial crisis by conducting prudent monetary policy, which keeps the domestic currency pegged against the euro, and by limiting fiscal deficits. The government has been loosening fiscal policy, however, and the budget deficit expanded to 4.2% of GDP in 2013. Macedonia achieved modest GDP growth in 2013 after a small contraction in 2012; inflation is under control."

Unemployment rate
2009: 31.7%
2008: 33.8 %

Public debt
2010: 24.2
2009: 32.4% of GDP

2010: labor force19.9%; 8.7% of GDP

Military expenditures as a percentage of GDP
2005: 6%


Living in an urban area
2010: 59%

Net migration rate
2011: More leaving than arriving; A net loss of 0.48 persons per 1,000 population.

Ethnic groups
2002 census: Macedonian 64.2%, Albanian 25.2%, Turkish 3.9%, Roma (Gypsy) 2.7%, Serb 1.8%, other 2.2% (2002 census)

2002 census: Macedonian Orthodox 64.7%, Muslim 33.3%, other Christian 0.37%, other and unspecified 1.63%


North of Greece. East of Albania. Landlocked. About 225 by 145 kilometers, or 140 by 90 miles. Slightly larger than Vermont. Mountainous with valleys and three large lakes.


Parliamentary democracy with a unicameral legislature. The president is elected by popular vote for a five-year term and eligible for a second term. Legislature has 120 members, elected by popular vote to four-year terms.

Capital: Skopje 

Recent History

September 8, 1991: a referendum by registered voters endorses independence from Yugoslavia.

Macedonia's independence is delayed by Greece's objection to the state's use of the Hellenic name of Macedonia. Greece has a province named Macedonia.

The 1991 Constitution included amendments that strengthened minority rights.

1995: Greece lifts its trade blockade against the republic and the two countries agree to normalize relations.

The World Factbook

Copyright © 2009-2013 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.