macrohistory & world report

Republic of Ghana

Map of Ghana

Ghana (capital Accra) and neighboring states

World Factbook as of November 2014: "Ghana's economy has been strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels... Ghana is well-endowed with natural resources and agriculture accounts for roughly one-quarter of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. The services sector accounts for 50% of GDP. Gold and cocoa production and individual remittances are major sources of foreign exchange. Oil production at Ghana's offshore Jubilee field began in mid-December 2010,and is producing close to target levels. Additional oil projects are being developed and are expected to come on line in a few years. Estimated oil reserves have jumped to almost 700 million barrels and Ghana's growing oil industry is expected to boost economic growth as the country faces the consequences of two years of loose fiscal policy, high budget and current account deficits, and a depreciating currency. President MAHAMA faces challenges in managing a population that is unhappy with living standards and that perceives they are not reaping the benefits of oil production because of political corruption."

Economic growth rate
2013: 7.9%
2012: 7.9%
2011: 15%
2010 7.7%
2009: 4%

Labor force in agriculture
2005: 56%

Public Debt:
2011: 38.7%

Export commodities
Gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products

Export partners:
2010: Netherlands 11.7%, UK 7%, France 5.7%, US 5.6%, Ukraine 5%, Belgium 4.6%

Export/import ratio
2011: exports $13.13 billion, imports $14.3 billion

Income Distribution – GINI index
Ranks 67th among 140 countries (lower rank number is less equal).

Health expenditures
2009: 10.6%


Living in an urban area
2010: 51%

Ethnic groups

2000 census: Akan 45.3%, Mole-Dagbon 15.2%, Ewe 11.7%, Ga-Dangme 7.3%, Guan 4%, Gurma 3.6%, Grusi 2.6%, Mande-Busanga 1%, other tribes 1.4%, other 7.8%

2000 census: Christian 68.8% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 24.1%, Protestant 18.6%, Catholic 15.1%, other 11%), Muslim 15.9%, traditional 8.5%, other 0.7%, none 6.1%

Net migration rate
2012: Net loss of 0.56 persons per 1,000 population per year

Kofe Annan:
The former Secretary-General of the United Nations, Kofe Annan is from Ghana. According to Wikipedia: "Annan's family was part of the country's elite; both of his grandfathers and his uncle were tribal chiefs. His father was half Asante and half Fante; his mother was Fante. Annan's father worked for a long period as an export manager for the Lever Brothers cocoa company."


Western Africa, east of the Ivory Coast (Cote d'Ivoire). Slightly smaller than Oregon, with 539 kilometers of coastline. Hot and humid in the south, hot and dry in the north. Capital: Accra.


Chief of state and head of goverment: John Dramani Mahama (president) since 24 July 2012, National Democratic Congress.

President and vice president are elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term). Unicameral Parliament with 230 seats and members elected by direct, popular vote in single-seat constituencies to serve four-year terms.

Recent History

In 1964, four years after becoming president, Kwame Nkrumah suspended Ghana's constitution and made Ghana a one-party state. A military coup in 1966 ended Nkrumah's rule, and Ghana remained a one-party state until 1992. Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings was head of state from 1981. In 1992 multi-party elections were held. Rawlings was genuinely popular and won 60 percent of the vote. He worked at improving Ghana's economy and won re-election in 1996, with 57 percent of the vote. The new 1992 constitution allowed him only two terms, ending his presidency in 2000. John Kufuor from a rival political party, was elected president.  In 2004 John Kufuor was relection with 52.7 percent of the vote. Ghanians are proud of their democracy and value the stability that it provides.

Copyright © 2009-2013 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.