macrohistory & world report


Map of Columbia

Columbia (capital Bogata) and neighboring states

World Factbook as of November 2014: "Colombia's consistently sound economic policies and aggressive promotion of free trade agreements in recent years have bolstered its ability to weather external shocks. Real GDP has grown more than 4% per year for the past three years, continuing almost a decade of strong economic performance. All three major ratings agencies have upgraded Colombia's government debt to investment grade. Nevertheless, Colombia depends heavily on energy and mining exports, making it vulnerable to a drop in commodity prices. Colombia is the world's fourth largest coal exporter and Latin America's fourth largest oil producer. Economic development is stymied by inadequate infrastructure and an uncertain security situation. Moreover, the unemployment rate of 9.7% in 2013 is still one of Latin America's highest... Colombia's infrastructure requires major improvements to sustain economic expansion."

Economic growth rate
2011: 5.7%
2012: 4/3%
2009: 1.5%

Unemployment rate:
2011: 10.8%
2010: 11.8%

Public debt
2011: 45.6% of GDP
2010: 44.2% of GDP

Export commodities
Petroleum, coal, emeralds, coffee, nickel, cut flowers, bananas, apparel

Oil exports
2009: ranks 33rd

Export partners
2011: US 38%, EU 15%, China 3.5%, Ecuador 3.4%

Income Distribution – GINI index
Ranks 11th among 140 countries (lower rank number is less equal). Among the most unequal. Less equal than Britain, which ranks 94th, and the US, which ranks 45th.

Health expenditures
2009: 6/4% of GDP


Living in an urban area
2010: 75%
2008: 74%

Density 41 persons per square kilometer. Per square kilometer of arable land: 1,708 persons.

Ethnic groups
Mmestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%

Roman Catholic 90%, other 10%

Net migration rate
2012: A net loss of 0.66 persons per 1,000 population


South America. South of Panama. Equivalent to 1,067 by 1067 kilometers or 667 by 667 miles.


World Factbook (2011): "republic; executive branch dominates government structure"

Capital: Bogota.

The World Factbook

Copyright © 2009-2013 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.