macrohistory & world report


Map of Chad

Chad (its capital N'Djamena) and neighboring states

World Factbook as of November 2014: "Oil and agriculture drive Chad's economy. At least 80% of Chad's population relies for its livelihood on subsistence farming and livestock raising and oil provides the bulk of export revenues. Cotton, cattle, and gum arabic provide the bulk of Chad's non-oil export earnings. Remittances have also been an important source of income and Chad relies on foreign assistance and foreign capital for most public and private sector investment. Oil production came on stream in late 2003 and Chad began to export oil in 2004. Economic growth has been positive in recent years due to high oil prices and strong local harvests, but Chad's fiscal situation is repeatedly exposed to declining oil prices and drought. Recently, the economy has been strained by the costs of repatriating Chadians fleeing the violence in South Sudan and the Central African Republic. Chad's investment climate remains challenging due to limited infrastructure, a lack of trained workers, extensive government bureaucracy, and corruption."

Economic growth rate
2011: 2.5%
2010: 13%
2009: minus 1.2%

Labor force in agriclture
2006: 80% (subsistence farming, herding, and fishing)

Export commodities
Oil, cattle, cotton, gum arabic

Export partners
2009: US 71.9%, China 16.9%, Netherlands 4.6%

Export/Import ratio
2011: exports $4.088 billion, imports $3.546 billion

Health expenditures
2009: 7% of GDP


Camel trains are being replaced by trucks.

Living in an urban area:
2010: 28%

According to the BBC in 2006, only 3 percent of the population has access to electricity.

Ethnic groups
1993 census: Sara 27.7%, Arab 12.3%, Mayo-Kebbi 11.5%, Kanem-Bornou 9%, Ouaddai 8.7%, Hadjarai 6.7%, Tandjile 6.5%, Gorane 6.3%, Fitri-Batha 4.7%, other 6.4%, unknown 0.3%

1993 census: Muslim 53.1%, Catholic 20.1%, Protestant 14.2%, animist 7.3%, other 0.5%, unknown 1.7%, atheist 3.1%

Net migration rate
2011: Net loss of 3.74 persons for every 1,000 population per year (about 41,000 persons).

Literacy (age 15 and over and can read and write
2000: males 40.8%, females 12.8

Net migration rate
2010: More people leaving than arriving. A net loss of 3.95 per 1,000 population.


Central Africa south of Libya. More than three times the size of California. Landlocked. Desert in the north, tropical in the south. Plains in center, desert in north, mountains in northwest, lowlands in south. Natural resources: petroleum, uranium, natron, kaolin, fish (Lake Chad), gold, limestone, sand and gravel, salt. Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan winds occur in north; periodic droughts; locust plagues.

Recent History

2004: A report published by the BBC describes Chad as among the four lowest ranking of 28 African countries regarding trust in authorities. The poll is by the UN Economic Commission for Africa. Among the complaints are . "corruption, poor tax systems, run-down and unaccountable public services, weak parliaments and unreformed courts."

Copyright © 2009-2013 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.