macrohistory & world report


Map of Canada

Canada (its capital Ottawa) and neighboring states

World Factbook as of November 2014: "As a high-tech industrial society in the trillion-dollar class, Canada resembles the US in its market-oriented economic system, pattern of production, and high living standards. Since World War II, the impressive growth of the manufacturing, mining, and service sectors has transformed the nation from a largely rural economy into one primarily industrial and urban... Canada enjoys a substantial trade surplus with the US, which absorbs about three-fourths of Canadian merchandise exports each year. Canada is the US's largest foreign supplier of energy, including oil, gas, uranium, and electric power... Canada's major banks emerged from the financial crisis of 2008-09 among the strongest in the world, owing to the financial sector's tradition of conservative lending practices and strong capitalization. Canada achieved marginal growth in 2010-13 and plans to balance the budget by 2015. In addition, the country's petroleum sector is rapidly expanding, because Alberta's oil sands significantly boosted Canada's proven oil reserves. Canada now ranks third in the world in proved oil reserves behind Saudi Arabia and Venezuela."

Economic growth rate
2012: 1.9%
2011: 2.4%
2010: 3.2%

Unemployment rate
2013: 7.1%
2012: 7.3%
2011: 7.5%
2010: 8%
2009: 8.5%
2008: 6.2%

Health expenditures for Canada for 2009 was 10.9% of its GDP compared to 16.2% for the US.

Canada's government is led by Stephen Harper of the Conservative Party, prime minister since 2006. He has NOT moved to privatize the nation's publicly funded health care system – which offers universal coverage "for medically necessary health care services provided on the basis of need, rather than the ability to pay."

2005: Mean (average) personal income taxes
are around 32% compared to around 29% for the United States. Corporate taxes are around 36% compared to around 39% for the United States.

Military expenditures as percentage of GDP
2005: 1.1


Living in an urban area
2011: 80.7%
2008: 80%

Gender Gap
The World Economic Forum lists Canada as seventh in the elimination of a gender gap. This is ahead of the United States, which is not among the top ten

Ethnicity (2011 estimate)
Canadian 32.2%, English 19.8%, French 15.5%, Scottish 14.4%, Irish 13.8%, German 9.8%, Italian 4.5%, Chinese 4.5%, North American Indian 4.2%, other 50.9%

2001 census: Roman Catholic 42.6%, Protestant 23.3% (including United Church 9.5%, Anglican 6.8%, Baptist 2.4%, Lutheran 2%), other Christian 4.4%, Muslim 1.9%, other and unspecified 11.8%, none 16%


North of the United States. Canada has the second largest land mass, 9,984,670 square kilometers, after Russia with 17,075,200 square kilometers.


Head of state, Queen Elizabeth II, since 6 February 1952.

Parliamentary democracy, a federation, and a constitutional monarchy. Capital: Ottawa.

Copyright © 2009-2013 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.