Notes: 18th-19th Centuries

 1. Casualty figures by Frans G. Bengtsson, The Sword Does not Jest: the Heroic Life of King Charles XII of Sweden, p 311.

 2. Casualty figures by Lindsey Hughes, Russia in the Age of Peter the Great, p 39.

 3. Frederick William succeeded his father, Frederick, in February, 1713.

 4. On the assassination and the death of Charles see R.M. Hatton, Charles XII of Sweden, pp 501-509.

 5. Autonomy meant self-rule with an overlord in charge of foreign relations.

 6. A book published in 2005 titled The Tragic Story of the Expulsion of the French Acadians from Their American Homeland, has been written by Yale University historian John Mack Faragher.

 7. Men from other principalities were also added to Frederick's armies by promising them work and then forcing them into the military. And it was the habit of armies in Frederick's time not to encamp next to a forest, where deserters could run and hide.

 8. Joyce Appleby, The Relentless Revolution, p 83.

 9. The five million figure is largely guesswork. The first census in Britain was conducted in 1801. The nine million figure around 1800 was about a tenth of the population of England at the end of the 20th century.

10. The million figure was found at

11. Joyce Appleby, p 118.

12. Julian Hoppit, A Land of Liberty?: England 1689-1727, 2000, p 344.

13. Wilfred Prest, Albion Ascendant: English History, 1660-1815, p 183.

14. Wikipedia, "1749 in Literature, February."

15. Gary B Nash, Red, White and Black, Fourth Edition, p 181.

16. Alan Taylor, American Colonies, p 322.

17. Samuel Eliot Morrison, The Oxford History of the American People, p 236.

18. Paul Johnson, Birth of the Modern, p 287.

19. Paul Johnson, p 287.

20. Michael Oren, Power, Faith, and Fantasy: America in the Middle East, 1776 to the Present.

21. Joyce Appleby, The Relentless Revolution, p 84.

22. France: Appleby, p 156.

23. France: Dominic Lieven, The Aristocracy of Europe, 1815-1914, pages 1-2.

24.  McKay et al., A History of Western Society, , vol 4, p 652. McKay quotes from Eighteenth-century Europe: Tradition and Progress, by Isser Woloch, p 282.

25. Louis was enlightened enough in 1780 to have abolished torture as a means of getting people to confess to crimes.

26. Voices of the Revolution, edited by Peter Vansittart, 1989, p 278.

27. Described in History of Western Society, Vol 2, Fourth Edition, by John P McKay et al, p 68.

28. Frank McLynn, Napoleon: a Biography, 1997, p 486.

29. Hause and Maltby, p 676, ISBN 0-534-54531-9.

30. The GDP figures are from The 1820 population figures are also available on Wikipedia. The subject is also addressed by John H Coatsworth and Alan M Taylor in Latin American and the World Economy Since 1800.

31. Paul Kennedy, Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, 1987, p 149.

32. Sir R J Evans, The Victorian Age,1950, p 19.

33. Jan Morris, Heaven's Command, 1973, p 22.

34. Eric Dorn Brose, German History, 1789-1871, p 156.

35. Joyce Appleby, The Relentless Revolution, p 170.

36. A comment by Princess Salme, one of the daughters of Sultan Seyyid Said, described by Abdul Sheriff in Slaves, Spices and Ivory in Zanzibar.

37. Paul Kennedy, Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, p 149.

38. Paul Kennedy, p 149.

39. India: Max Boot, War Made New, p 101.

40. Jan Morris, Heaven's Command, p 23.

41. Morris, p 24.

42. Morris, p 30.

43. Morris, p 360.

44. David Chidester, p 546.

45. Queen Victoria: A letter by the queen to Lord Derby, dated August 15, 1858.

46. Arthur Herman, Gandhi & Churchill, 2009, p 29.

47. I C Campbell, A History of the Pacific Islands, p 152.

48. Geoffery W Rice, The Oxford History of New Zealand, p 157.

49. Orlando Figes, The Crimean War, p 2.

50. Nicholas I: Wikipedia's footnote, Peter Oxley, Russia: from Tsars to Commissars, Oxford University Press.

51. Max Boot, War Made New, pages 127-28.

52. Numbers are from

53. Shelby Foote describes the Battle of Cold Harbor on pages 281-99 of his Civil War, volume 3, published in 1986. Gordon C. Rhea disputes Foote's 7,000 in eight minutes description in his book Cold Harbor: Grant and Lee, May 26 – June 3, 1864, published in 2002.

54. Numbers are from

55. H W Brands, American Colossus, p. 22.

56. From a fictional narrative about an former slave named Joseph Alloway, titled " What Shall I do?"

57. Mrs. Elizabeth Waddell to Mrs. J.L. Bailey, January 29, 1866, John Lancaster Bailey Papers, SHC, quoted in Masters without Slaves by James L. Roark, W.W. Norton & Company, 1977, p 121.

58. Robert D Sawrey, Dubious Victory, p 134.

59. Jerry Weddle, Antrim is my Stepfather's Name, Arizona Historical Society, 1993, p 4; quoted by Michael Wallis, Billy the Kid, p 72.

60. Michael Wallis, p. 54. Rather than Silver Threads, a bit of Tchaikovsky's Sixth Symphony along with a few bars of "Bury Me Not on the Lone Prairie" were chosen as background for Howard Hughes' horrible cliché Western fictional movie supposedly about Billy the Kid: The Outlaw.

61. Frederick Nolan, The West of Billy the Kid (University of Oklahoma Press, 1998) p 28; quoted by Wallis, p 83.

62. Paul Kooistra, Criminals and Heroes: Structure, Power & Identity (Bowling Green Ohio State University Popular Press, 1989) p 75; referenced by Michael Wallis, Billy the Kid, p.68.

63. Warren Beck, New Mexico: A History of Four Centuries, (University of Oklahoma Press, 1962) p 162; quoted by Wallis p.168.

64. George W. Coe, Frontier Fighter (Chicago: Lakeside Press, 1984) p 49-50; quoted by Wallis, p 19.

65 Bob Boze Bell, The Illustrated Life and Times of Billy the Kid (Phoenix: Tri Star-Boze Publications, 1992, 1996); quoted by Wallis, p 226.

66.Bob Boze Bell, p 43; quoted by Wallis, p 227.

67. Bob Boze Bell, pages 215-16; quoted by Wallis, p 228.

68. Wallis, p 228.

69. Frederick Nolan, The West of Billy the Kid (University of Oklahoma Press, 1998) p 273; quoted by Wallis, p 244.

70. Wallis, p 244.

71. Santa Fe Weekly Democrat July 21, 1881; Wallis, p 250.

72. El Defensor Chieftain, "New Mexico Rangers," May 7, 2011. See also Paul Harden.

73. A search for this quote on the internet offers the reader a variety of sources.

74. Douglas A. Blackmon, Slavery by Another Name, p 110.

75. Seymour E Harris, American Economic History, p 71.

76. Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, p 202

77. "Measured in 1840 dollars, the per capita income of non-southerners was$114 in 1840 and $282 in 1900." From "White Labor, Black Labor, and Agricultural Stagnation," by Joseph D. Reid Jr, in Market Institutions and Economic Progess in the New South 1865-1900, p 33, 1981.

78. In his book Overthrow, Stephen Kinzer writes that "Hawaii was in the midst of an epic confontation between tradition and modernity." He writes that Hawaii's "tribal-based agriculture was collapsing under pressure from the relentlessly expanding sugar industry." He also describes the overthrow of Hawaii's monarchy.

79. Population figures from

80. Don Gillmor and Pierre Turgeon, Canada, a People's History, p 264.

81. Robin W. Winks, The Blacks in Canada, a History, pages 233-5.

82. Winks, p 289.


84. Nicholas V Riasanovsky, A History of Russia, Oxford University Press, 1977, p 414.

85. Riasanovsky, p 436.

86. Bertram D Wolfe, Three Who Made a Revolution, p 38.

87. Lionel Kochan and John L.H. Keep, The Making of Modern Russia: From Kiev Rus to the Collapse of the Soviet Union, p 180.

88. Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, pages 199, 203.

89. Denis Judd, The British Imperial Experience, from 1765 to the Present, p 83.

90. Jan Morris, Heaven's Command, p 381.

91. Numbers regarding the Paris Commune and some facts are derived from "Seven Days of Terror," in Samual C Burchell's Age of Progress, pages 136-37.

92. Paul Kennedy, The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers, p 202.

93. Theodore S. Hamerow, Birth of a New Europe.

94. Frederic B M Hollyday, Bismarck (1970) p 65.

95. In Birth of a New Europe, Theodore Hamerow writes of a rising standard of living for hired workers measured in real income – what their wages bought from year to year. Using figures from a Marxist scholar, Jurgen Kuczynski, who was not likely to minimize the sufferings of labor, Hamerow described real wages in Britain as rising about 60% from

1816 to 1900, and climbing almost as steeply in France and Germany between 1860 and 1900. Drawing from Kuczunski, Hamerrow writes that "the real [emphasis added] annual income of miners [in Germany] grew from 662 marks in 1871 to 1020 in 1900; in the building trades the increase was from 394 to 659; and in the iron and steel industry earnings went from 630 to 885." p 141.

96. Kevin Shillington, History of Africa, p 339.

97. Wikipedia, "Agriculture in the Empire of Japan."

98. Tong-hak (“Eastern Learning”) was a syncretic religious movement, supported by impoverished peasants, opposed to Western culture and espousing equality of all people.

99. Jeremy Bentham. "Offences Against One's Self," published in the Journal of Homosexuality, vol 3 p 389-405.

100. Joyce Appleby, Shores of Knowledge, p 228.

101. Mary Gabriel, Love and Capital, p 19.

102 Gabriel, p 61.

103. Karl Marx, manuscript, "Human Needs and the Division of Labor under the Rule of Private Property," 1844.

104. Gabriel, p 65.

105. Gabriel, p 176.

106. Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte.

107. Marx and Engels Collected Works, Volume 41, p 410.

108. Ibid. p 534.

109. Gabriel, p 359.

110. Karl Marx, "Civil War in France."



113. Joyce Appleby, The Relentless Revolution: the History of Capitalism, p 79.

114. Francis Fukuyama, Foreign Affairs, January-February 2012.

115. Nationalism, Racism, and Militarism,

116. Ibid.

117. Wikipedia, "Heinrich von Treitschke"