Notes: 16th-17th Centuries

 1. The Modern Age: The History of the World in Christian Perspective, Laura Hicks ed., vol 2, p 194-95.

 2. Joyce Appleby, Shores of Knowledge: New World Discoveries and the Scientific Imagination, pp 1-4.

 3. Appleby, p 17.

 4. Appleby, p 17.

 5. Columbus, Christopher (1962). Diario de Colón; libro de la primera navegación y descubrimiento de las Indias. Madrid.

 6. "Lost document reveals Columbus as tyrant of the Caribbean," by Giles Tremlett, The Guardian (UK), 6 Aug, 2006.

 7. Darcy Ribeiro, The Brazilian People, p 25-26.

 8. Ribeiro, p 101.

 9. Appleby, Shores of Knowledge, p 18..

10. Appleby, p 24.

11. Appleby, p 25-26, documentation: Jason M Yaremko "'Gente bárbara': Indigenous Rebellion, Resistance and Persistence in Colonial Cuba," p 19.

12. Appleby, Shores of Knowledge, p 51.

13. Appleby, p 51.

14. Charles V: The description was by Marcantonio Contarini in 1536. The quote is excerpted from Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th Ed. 1910 Vol XV. p 141.

15. Cortés: Hernán Cortés, Letters from Mexico, translated and edited by A R Pagden, 1971, p 334.

16. Pueblo: Suzan Hazen-Hammond, Timelines of Native American History, First Edition, 1997, p 72.

17. William R Nester, The Great Frontier War, p 9.

18. Francis Jennings, The Creation of America, p 44.

19. William J Bouwsma, John Calvin, "Sermon 143 on Deuteronomy" p 234.

20. Bouwsma, p 36.

21. Max Boot, War Made New, p 30.

22. Max Boot, p 28.

23. Max Boot, p 45.

24. Joyce Appleby, The Relentless Revolution, p 42.

25 Appleby, p 43.

26. Albert Edward Musson, Eric Robinson. Science and technology in the Industrial Revolution, 1969, Manchester University Press, p 16.

27. According to a census in 1678, Russia's population was around 9 million and Moscow had over 100,000 inhabitants. Novgorod and Smolensk had populations of less than 20,000. See Richard Hellie, The Economy and Material Culture of Russia, 1600-1725,  p1.

28. Paul Bairoch, Economics and World History, University of Chicago Press, p 147.

29. Robert W July, A History of the African People.

30. July, p 152.

31 John Reader, Africa: A Biography of the Continent, p 408.

32. The opinions of the ulama are derived from Jean Chardin who lived in Isfahan in the 1600s, expressed in Voyages de Monsier le Chevalier Chardin en Perse, Vol. II (Amsterdam, 1711), pp 206-208, quoted by Nikki R. Kiddie in her book Scholars, Saints and Sufis, pp 215-216.

33. Fareed Zakaria, The Post American World, 2008, p 53-55. Zakaria draws from Angus Maddison's The World Economy: A Millennial Perspective.

34. John Searle, Mind: a brief Introduction, p 41.

35. Dennis Brian, Einstein: A Life, 1996, p 127.

36. Francis Fukuyama, The Origins of Political Order, p 439.