In 1690, Calcutta was but a small village. In 1820, Calcutta's population was around 250,000. In 1931, it had increased to an estimated at 1.2 million. Just before the birth of Pakistan – also called the partition – Calcutta was 25 percent Muslim. It was a place of great violence between Muslims and Hindus. By 1952 its population was double what it had been in 1931, at 2.4 million. In 1999 its population was 11 million, the largest urban population in India.