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30.1 percent Muslim in 1931. 22 percent Muslims and 0.8 percent Christians in 1951. The Christians were mainly with tribes in the hills. And tribal people were mainly animists and uncounted by government census. Population density in the 1950s was about 113 persons per square mile.

A third of Assam is used for agriculture. A little less than a third is forest. 2.3 percent is plantation. Assam is also a big oil producing region, and coal is mined.

Assam has numerous cities, the largest Ambattur at 308,000 in 2001. The counted population of Assam in 1951 was 9 million. In 2001 that population was listed as 26.6 million.