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Named Transjordan (across the Jordan River) by the British when they took over that area at the end of World War I. Transjordan won in independence in 1946 while remaining closely allied with Britain. In 1950 the name was changed to Jordan.

Population by U.N. count in 1954  was about 1,360,000, including 280,000 refugees in the West Bank  (considered a part of Jordan beginning in 1950) and 70,000 refugees in east of the Jordan River. The population in 2001 has been estimated at 5,453,378.

Jordan in 2001 has one of the highest birth rates and Great Depression level unemployment (around 30 percent).