(JEWS and ARABS from WW2 to 1967 – continued)
At conferences in Cairo and in Casablanca in 1964, the Arab powers decided to intensify their struggle against Israel by diverting the headwaters of the Jordan River. The following year the Palestinian Liberation Organization (PLO) was founded, and a new Palestinian guerrilla organization began operating: FATAH (an acronym which translates to "the movement for the liberation of Palestine). Small bands of guerrilla fighters were sent from bases in Syria, Lebanon and Jordan against Israel.
On 4 November 1966, Syria and Egypt signed a mutual defense pact. In April 1967 the Syrian harassment of Israeli farming operations and the shelling of Israeli villages increased. An air battle developed in which Syria lost six planes. The Syrians turned to the Egyptians and, on 16 May,, Nasser asked the United Nations to withdraw its forces from Sinai. The UN complied. On 30 May, Egypt and Jordan signed a mutual defense treaty. On 31 May, Egypt moved 100,000 troops, 1,000 tanks and 500 heavy guns into the Sinai Desert.
Rather than sit by and leave the initiative to Egypt, Israel attacked. On 5 June its airforce virtually eliminated the Egyptian airforce in a single blow. By June 7, Israeli troops had secured the eastern bank of the Suez Canal, and on June 8 Nasser accepted a cease-fire in order to keep the Israelis from driving to Cairo. Also, Israel drove the Jordanian and Syrian offensives back. Israel had complete control of the skies, dropping napalm on the Arab forces. When the final UN cease-fire was imposed on 11 June Israel stood in possession of the Sinai Desert, the Golan Heights and Arab East Jerusalem. Israeli occupation of the West Bank (still officially ruled by Jordan) and of the Gaza Strip had begun.
A SUMMARY OF MICHAEL OREN'S SIX DAYS OF WAR IS HERE.
The Unmaking of Palestine, by W.F. Abboushi, 1985
Israel: a History, by Martin Gilbert, 1998
Personal Witness: Israel through My Eyes, by Abba Eban, 1992
The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, by David E. Long, University of Florida Press, 1997
Six Days of War: June 1967 and the Making of the Modern Middle East, by Michael B. Oren, 2002
UN Resolution 181, Nov. 29, 1947, http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/mod/1947UN181.html
"The Middle East's Forgotten Refugees," by Semha Alwaya, 2006
"The Sharia and the Nation State: Who can codify the divine law?" http://www.hf.uib.no/smi/pao/vikor.html, 1998
"Anwar Sadat," by Cecil Ramnaraine (not dated)
"Muslim Brotherhood in Syria,1965-'85," http://www.onwar.com/aced/data/sierra/syria1965.htm , 2000
Copyright © 1998-2015 by Frank E. Smitha. All rights reserved.