In 1959, Khrushchev had abrogated the Soviet Union's 1957 aid agreement with China, and he publicly denounced the Chinese communists. The Russians were upset over China's attempt at a "Great Leap Forward" and rejection of the Soviet model of socialist development. Khrushchev accused the Chinese of not properly understanding what communism was about and how it was to be built, and he ridiculed Mao's communes. The Chinese were upset with the Soviet Union for reneging on its promise to supply them with atomic weapons, for failing to support them during the Quemoy and Ma-tsu crisis of 1958 and for failing to support them in 1959 in their dispute with India. Khrushchev was afraid of the Chinese starting a war that would destroy the world. Mao had been calling the U.S. a paper tiger and Khrushchev had responded that the tiger had nuclear teeth. In 1960 Khrushchev pulled 1,400 scientists and industrial specialists from some 250 enterprises, and apparently he ordered them to bring their blueprints with them. The Chinese were mystified, and by the beginning of September 1960, Soviet diplomats and a few trade officials were the only Soviet citizens in China.
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