(COLD WAR: 1945-49 – continued)

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COLD WAR: 1945-49 (4 of 8)

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Communism in Italy, to 1948

The leader of Italy's Communist Party, Palmiro Togliatti, was one of communism's brighter stars. In 1948 his was the largest communist party in Western Europe: 2,000,000 members. He had been cooperating with Stalin, and his party was a member in good standing in the Cominform. Togliatti let criticism from the Cominform slide. He wanted for Italy something more suited to the disdain that the Italian people had learned in the fascist years for dictatorship and the "great" leader.

Togliatti was himself charismatic. He could easily draw a crowd of 100,000. He campaigned vigorously for the general election scheduled for April 18, 1948. In the United States a campaign was launched to help the Italians oppose the communists and their allies. Italian-Americans wrote letters to their relatives in Italy. Frank Sinatra made a Voice of America radio broadcast. The Central Intelligence Agency was asked to do what it could, and with approval of the National Security Agency and its chairman, President Truman, the CIA funneled "black bag" contributions to Italy's anti-communist candidates. The US Ambassador to Italy, Claire Booth Luce, and Joseph P. Kennedy helped raise $2 million for the Christian Democrat Party's candidate, Alcide de Gasperi. More influential was the Catholic Church in Italy, which worked hard to encourage people to vote against communist candidates. And their work paid off. The Communists rin 1948 received only half the votes they had in 1946. The Christian Democrats won a parliamentary majority and de Gasperi formed a new center-right government.



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