Notes: Before 1000 BCE

1. Jared Diamond, The World Until Yesterday, pp 157-58.

2. Francis Fukuyama, The Origins of Political Order, p 53.

3. Karen Armstrong, Fields of Blood, 2014, p 22.

4. Samual Noah Kramer, The Sumerians: Their History, Culture and Character, 1971, p 74.

5. Francis Fukuyama, The Origins of Political Order, p 114.

6. Harriet Crawford, Sumer and the Sumerians, Second Edition, p 31.

7. "Ancient Tablets, Ancient Graves: Accessing Women's Lives in Mesopotamia,"

8. The Hebrew alphabet.

9. Israel Finkelstein, David and Solomon, published 2006, p 45.

10. Narrator, "The Bible's Buried Secrets: archeologyof the Hebrew Bible." PBS Airdate: November 18, 2008.

11. Anne E. Killebrew, Biblical peoples and ethnicity: an archaeological study of Egyptians, p 186.

12. Dever interviewed for "The Bible's Buried Secrets: archeologyof the Hebrew Bible."

13. Finkelstein, David and Solomon, p 13

14.  The J in Jehovah has origins in the German language, with J pronounced as if it were Y and the V as if it were W, close to the spoken Yahweh, written by the Hebrews as YWHW. Yahweh was often referred to in the Old Testament as the Lord because it was believed that His name was too awesome to be mentioned respectfully.

15. William G. Dever, Who Were the Early Israelites and Where Did They come From? p16. Dever, interviewed for the PBS work "The Bible's Buried Secrets: archeology of the Hebrew Bible," said: "You cannot afford to ignore the biblical text, especially if you can isolate a kind of kernel of truth behind these stories and then you have the archaeological data. Now what happens when text and artifact seem to point in the same direction? Then, I think, we are on a very sound ground, historically."

16.  Ancient Indus Valley Script: Dani Interview.