(INDIA, EMPIRE and CHAOS – continued)
India's so-called Dark Age – from 185 BCE to CE 300 – was not dark regarding trade. Disintegration of the Maurya Empire and the invasions were mitigated by a continuing trade in which Indians sold more to the Roman Empire than they bought, with Roman coins piling up in India. The Kushan invaders were absorbed by India, Kushan kings adopting the manners and language of the Indians and intermarrying with Indian royal families. The southern kingdom of Andhra conquered Magadha in 27 BCE, ending the rule Sunga dynasty there, and it extended its power in the Ganges Valley, creating a new bridge between the north and the south. But this came to an end as Andhra and two other southern kingdoms weakened themselves by warring against one another. By the early 300s, power in India was returning to the Magadha region, and India was entering what would be called its classical age.
A Magadha raja named Chandra Gupta – who was unrelated to the Chandragupta of six centuries before – controlled rich veins of iron from the nearby Barabara Hills. Around the year 308 he married a princess from the neighboring kingdom of Licchavi, and with this marriage he gained a hold over the flow of northern India's commerce on the Ganges River – the major flow of north Indian commerce. In 319, Chandra Gupta created for himself the title King of Kings (Maharajadhiraja), and he extended his rule westward to Prayaga, in north-central India.
Ten years into his rule, Chandra Gupta lay dying, and he told his son, Samudra, to rule the whole world. His son tried. Samudra Gupta's forty-five years of rule would be described as one vast military campaign. He waged war along the Ganges plain, overwhelming nine kings and incorporating their subjects and lands into the Gupta Empire. He absorbed Bengal, and kingdoms in Nepal and Assam paid him tribute. He expanded his empire westward, conquering Malava and the Saka kingdom of Ujjayini. He gave various tribal states autonomy under his protection. He raided Pallava and humbled eleven kings in southern India. He made a vassal of the king of Lanka, and he compelled five kings on the outskirts of his empire to pay him tribute. The powerful kingdom of Vakataka in central India, he preferred to leave independent and friendly.
Around 380, Samudra Gupta was succeeded by his son Chandra Gupta II, and Chandra Gupta II extended Gupta rule to India's west coast, where new ports were helping India's trade with countries farther west. His rule influenced local powers beyond the Indus River and north to Kashmir. While Rome was being overrun and the western half of the Roman Empire was disintegrating, Gupta rule was at the apex of its grandeur, prospering in agriculture, crafts and trade. Unlike the Mauryas, who had controlled trade and industry, the Guptas let people free to pursue wealth and business, and prosperity in the Guptan era exceeded that of the Mauryan era. Like the Cynics during Rome's golden age, a few ascetics entertained pessimistic views of life. and maintained that asceticism would benefit all of humanity. But many Indians were pursuing pleasure and enjoying life. In the cities were wealthy and middle class people who enjoyed their gardens, music, dancing, plays and various other entertainment. They enjoyed a daily bath, artistic and social activities and a variety of food, including rice, bread, fish, milk, fruits and juices. And despite religious prohibitions, the Indians – especially the aristocrats – drank wine and stronger alcoholic beverages.
Greater wealth accrued to those who already had wealth, and the middle class prospered. Big estates grew with the help of dependent labor and slave labor. The poor stayed poor, but apparently there was little dire want. The caste system still existed. So too did the inferior status of women. But charities abounded. The Gupta kings were autocrats who liked to think of themselves as servants to all their subjects. Hospitals offered care free of charge to everyone, rich and poor. There were rest houses for travelers along India's highways, and the capital possessed an excellent, free hospital created by the charity of the wealthy.
Although the Gupta's were more organized in their administrations, with the increase in prosperity had come a greater liberality. The cruel punishments of Mauryan times had been abolished. People no longer had to register with government authorities or carry a passport when traveling within the empire. The government operated without the system of espionage often practiced by Roman emperors and by Mauryan rulers. Law breaking was punished without death sentences – mainly by fines. Punishments such as having one's hand cut off were applied only against obstinate, professional criminals.
Among civilians, the avoidance of killing that had been a part of Buddhism and Jainism was widely observed. Across India most people had become vegetarians, except for fish which was widely consumed in Bengal and places to its south. And unlike parts of the Roman Empire, a traveler in India had little reason to fear robbery. A visitor from China, Fa-hien (Faxian), traveled about in India for eleven years and recorded that he was never molested or robbed.
With the good times came an intellectual revival. Literature flourished, and Indians exercised their proficiency in art, architecture and mathematics. It was now that India's greatest poet and dramatist, Kalidasa, lived. He and other writers acquired fame expressing the values of the rich and powerful.
Chandra Gupta II died in 415 and was succeeded by his son, Kumara Gupta, who maintained India's peace and prosperity. During his forty-year reign the Gupta Empire remained undiminished. Then – as was the Roman Empire around this time – India suffered more invasions. Kumara Gupta's son, the crown prince, Skanda Gupta, was able to drive the invaders, the Hephthalites, back, into the Sassanian Empire, where they were to defeat the Sassanid army and kill the Sassanid king, Firuz.
In India, women and children sang praises to Skanda Gupta. Skanda Gupta succeeded his father in 455. Then the Hephthalites returned, and he spent much of his reign of twenty-five years combating them, which drained his treasury and weakened his empire. Skanda Gupta died in 467, and after a century and a half the cycle of rise and disintegration of empire turned again to disintegration. Contributing to this was dissention within the royal family. Benefiting from this dissention, governors of provinces and feudal chieftains revolted against Gupta rule. For awhile the Gupta Empire had two centers: at Valabhi on the western coast and at Pataliputra toward the east. Seeing weakness, the Hephthalites invaded India again – in greater number. Just before the year 500, the Hephthalites took control of the Punjab. After 515, they absorbed the Kashmir, and they advanced into the Ganges Valley, the heart of India, raping, burning, massacring, blotting out entire cities and reducing fine buildings to rubble. Provinces and feudal territories declared their independence, and the whole of north India became divided among numerous independent kingdoms. And with this fragmentation India was again torn by numerous small wars between local rulers.
Ancient India and Ancient China: Trade and Religious Exhanges, AD1-600, by Xinru Liu, 1988, Oxford University Press.
A History of Ancient India, by L.P. Sharma, 1992
A History of India, 4th Edition, by Hermann Kulke and Dietmar Rothermund, 1998
A New History of India, 5th Edition, by Stanley A. Wolpert, 1997
A History of Science and Its Relations with Philosophy and Religion, Chapter 1, "Science in the Ancient World," by Sir William Dampier, 1948
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